Species Lists, Below are various species found on the farm. It is not necessarily complete, so please submit updates should you find anything missing or have suggestions.
Baboon Overall Length: 1.35m, Male 38 kg, Female 17 kg, Lifespan 31 years.
Baboons are social animals found in troops of 10 to 30 strong with each member in the social hierarchy of the troop. A dominant male or alpha male, is the leader. Below him follow a number of large males who serve as the protectors of the troop always ready to warn or defend the others against danger. Lower down, in a more loosely arranged hierarchy, follow the younger males, females, and infants.
Baboons are common and often found along the edges of riverine forests or in mountain valleys, close to water. Most of the daylight is spent looking for insects, berries, and other tidbits on the ground. Occasionally they will climb a tree to forage for fruit, birds' eggs, or succulent twigs. Towards dusk they move closer to the river and spend the night resting on some comfortable branch high in a tree or rock crevice.
Bush-pig. Overall Length: 1.35m, Male 38 kg, Female 17 kg, Lifespan 31 years.
The Bushpig occurs in forests, underbrush, thickets, reed beds or stands of tall grass where there is water. They are good swimmers and like to wallow in cooling mud. Bushpigs live in groups of 6-12 animals and occasionally in groups of up to 30. They are mainly nocturnal, but in areas where they are not disturbed they may be seen during the day.
They forage with their snouts for various food items which they locate with their keen sense of smell. The Bushpig is omnivorous and its diet includes insects, small animals, reptiles, bulbs and fruit.
Bushbuck. Shoulder Height: 0.9m, Male 54 kg, Female 33 kg, Lifespan 12 years
Bushbuck are widespread, living individually or in groups of two or three. Their habitat is thick bush and lush riverine forests which adjoin most of the more permanent rivers. They are shy and secretive, and rarely spend more than a few moments in full view before disappearing with quiet stealth into the undergrowth which conceals them from admiring eyes.
Bushbuck are attractive, medium-sized antelope. They are often difficult to see because of their colouration which blends into the shade with the stripes and spots breaking their body outline.
They breed throughout the year. A single calf is born after a gestation period of 6-7 months.
Crocodile. Length: 5 m, Male 225 kg, Female 185 kg, Lifespan 45 years.
The Nile crocodile is the largest of the four crocodile species found in Africa. Nile crocodiles have voracious appetites. They feed on animals which come to the water to drink. These include zebras, hippos, wildebeest, porcupines, pangolins, and birds. They feed mainly on fish.
Nile crocodiles can be found in rivers, lakes, waterholes, mangrove swamps, estuaries, and freshwater marshes. They are mostly aquatic, but travel easily on land. During the wet season they travel long distances on land, returning when the floodwaters subside. During the day they can be found basking along riverbanks with their mouths open.
Males become sexually mature at 3 m, 10 years of age and females at 2 m, 10 years of age. The breeding season is July, where they mate in shallow water. The female lays 30-80 eggs in a nest of rotting vegetation near the water's edge. The eggs hatch after an incubation of 2-3 months.
Common Duiker. Shoulder Height: 0.31 m, Male 4.7 kg, Female 5 kg, Lifespan 10 years.
The blue duiker is the smallest antelope in southern Africa, weighing a mere 4-5 kg. In addition it is very shy and tricky to spot - living in forests and along coastal thickets.
When in danger, the duiker will not hesitate to flee to cover beneath the undergrowth. Although they are cautious, they sometimes give themselves away. Their tail has a white underneath, which alerts predators. The blue duiker’s diet consists of leaves and fruit. Living near to water is a necessity to this buck as it drinks frequently.
Its predators include eagles, pythons and large cats. The blue duiker lives alone or in pairs. A single lamb is born after a gestation period of 4 months throughout the year.
Livingstone Eland. Shoulder Height: 1.6 m, Male 650 kg, Female - 455 kg, Lifespan 14 years.
The Eland has a mass of about 650 kilograms - double that of kudu. Eland are by far the largest of the African antelope. Despite their large size, Eland can jump over a 2.5m high fence.
Thickset to a point of appearing overweight, they have a characteristic hump at the shoulder and a broad fold of skin dangling loosely below the neck. The body is covered with a short-haired yellowy brown or fawn coat, often with faint white vertical lines down the sides of the abdomen. Both sexes have moderate-sized horns, twisted into a spiral near the junction with the head. Females tend to have thinner and sometimes longer horns than males.
Eland, which roam over very wide areas, prefer the open plains or sandy woodlands, generally being found in groups of four or five, but occasionally merging to form large herds of more than 100. They are browsers and grazers, feeding on both leaves and grasses as the opportunity arises.
The female eland has a gestation period of 9 months, after which they give birth to a single calf.
Giraffe. Shoulder Height: 3 m, Male 1220 kg, Female 900 kg, Lifespan 23 years.
Giraffe's have the most unusual appearance of all Africa's mammals. Their excessively long legs and neck allow them to feed on leaves and seed-pods at a level where they have no competition amongst the other herbivores. Giraffes are found in habitats where there are tallish trees and are frequently seen in the acacia savannahs.
Their patchwork body-patterns vary slightly though individual colour differences may sometimes be very obvious, some having unusually dark body patches whilst others are very light. The differences do not indicate different species, but merely represent the normal variation found in every animal species.
After a gestation period of 15 months, a single calf is born. Giraffes give birth standing up and the calf can start to walk within an hour of being born.
Hippo’s. Shoulder Height: 1.45 m, Male 1880 kg, Female 1535 kg, Lifespan 40 years.
The Hippopotamus are the largest of the fresh water mammals. They have a very thick hide and bulky, thickset body.
The hippopotamus is most at home in water during the day, where it moves gracefully through this environment and even swims when the need arises. A hippopotamus's head is adapted for a semi-aquatic life where the ears, eyes and nose are placed on top of the head and protrude out the water while the rest of the body is submerged. The ears and nose close automatically when submerged.
These well-rounded animals feed by night, leaving the water towards evening to forage on grass or small shrubs along the river banks, often covering considerable distances. Their dung is very easy to recognize, as they have the peculiar habit of 'spraying', or fanning, the dung against a shrub or tree.
Males sometimes become very aggressive and domineering, resulting in vicious and lengthy fights, the loser of which is usually forced to leave the herd. Sharp canine and incisor teeth are situated at the front of the exceptionally large, wide mouth, and males can inflict severe wounds with these tusks.
After a gestation period of 8 months, pregnant females will give birth to a single calf.
Impala. Shoulder Height: 0.9 m, Male 58.4 kg, Female 43.4 kg, Lifespan 13 years.
The Impala is a graceful antelope. They are commonly found in groups of about 10 to 30 head. They found mainly along eastern Africa and are never far from water.
Only the male impala have horns. They also emit a loud, deep throated raspy sound which serves to alert the herd of danger. Readied by this warning, the animals will scatter, leaping gracefully over shrubs or other obstructions.
The herd structure varies according to the reproductive phase of the animals. Their mating season lasts from April to early June. During this season dominant males will fight fiercely where the victor will gather a small herd of females with which he alone will have the right to mate. During these months, bachelor herds will also form. These young males are incapable of securing their own small harem of females.
After the mating season, males become less aggressive towards each other and the mating herds and bachelor herds break up to be replaced by mixed herds, in which the two sexes intermingle peacefully.
In early November the first of the young impala are born, and lambing continues until about the end of December.
Klipspringer. Shoulder Height: 0.6 m, Male 11.7 kg, Female 14 kg, Lifespan 9 years.
Translated from Afrikaans, the name means 'rock-jumper'. Klipspringer are well adapted to living amongst rocky habitats and browse on the shrubs and trees found in these habitats. They are widely distributed, but are not often seen.
They are fairly small animals with a yellowish-grey coat. Only the males have short, straight, upward-pointing horns. They leap fearlessly from boulder to boulder with nimble ease as they have well adapted hooves which allow them to jump without losing their footing.
Klipspringers are usually found singly or in pairs. Following a gestation period of 5 months, a single lamb is born which remains hidden for the first 3 months of its life.
Kudu, Shoulder Height: 1.34 m, Male 252 kg, Female 190 kg, Lifespan 16 years.
Kudu are browsers and prefer areas quite heavily covered with low trees. They are commonly found in southern Africa and are found in small herds comprising one or two adult males, two or three adult females, and one or more juveniles.
Adult males are easily recognized by their magnificent horns twisted into a characteristic spiral while females have no horns. Their large, rounded ears can be twisted in virtually any direction to locate any sounds of possible threat. The white underside of a kudu tail, which is exposed when running, is claimed to enable members of the herd to see each other more clearly and so remain together when fleeing from a predator.
Males will fight for the privilege of mating and in a few instances dead kudu have been found with their horns inextricably intertwined, presumably having starved as a result of being unable to separate. A single calf is born after a gestation period of 7 months.
Nyala Shoulder Height: 1.05 m, Male 115 kg, Female 69 kg, Lifespan 14 years.
The Nyala is found only in eastern Africa and is often confused with the kudu. They prefer browsing and are found in bushy areas.
There are obvious differences which allow easy recognition of the two species. The males horn has a distinctive white tip and they have a characteristic yellowy-orange on the lower parts of the legs.
Males and females differ. A male has a shaggy coat with a white crest stretching along the top of its back. Females are not as hairy and have redder coats. They also have no horns. Females and younger males have a series of up to eight lighter vertical stripes along the side of the body.
A single young is born, normally from August - October, after a gestation period of 8-9 months.
Steenbuck. Shoulder Height: 0.51 m, Male 11.6 kg, Female 11 kg, Lifespan 10 years.
Steenbok are generally found alone or in pairs scattered throughout the open bushveld in lightly wooded areas. They are widespread in southern Africa. Steenbok are browsers that are fairly selective in the vegetation they eat and at times they will also scratch around for bulbs and roots.
They are most active at dawn and dusk. The Steenbok is a small fawn-coloured graceful antelope. They are slender-legged and with sharp-featured faces and their small body and colour blends well with their grassy habitat making them difficult to spot. Only the males have horns which are smooth, sharp pointed.
Steenbok are territorial animals. Their main breeding time is summer where a single calf is born after a gestation period of 5-6 months.
Wart-hog. Shoulder Height: 0.68 m, Male 89 kg, Female 65 kg, Lifespan 17 years.
Warthogs are common in most areas and usually live in small family groups of up to seven strong. At night, they rest in holes and burrows, coming out by day to feed and drink. When threatened, they run for their burrows and enter rear end first, tusks facing outwards to ward off any danger.
Warthogs are well adapted to their particular way of life. Kneeling down, they use their toughened snout to scratch and dig for roots and graze on grass and other vegetation close to the ground.
Warthogs have a sparsely haired grayish skin and peculiar fleshy lumps or 'warts' on their face, from which the animal derives its name. The male has 2 pairs of these warts while the female only has one. Both sexes have tusks which protrude from near the front of the head, those of the male being much larger than those of the female.
The long, thin, tufted tails are held stiffly upright when running. It is believed to help members of a group to see each other and remain close when running through tall grass. Warthogs are also well-known for their strength and toughness, and never hesitate to put up a fierce, relentless fight if cornered.
Warthog litters vary from 1-5 young being born after a gestation period of 5 months.
Waterbuck. Shoulder Height: 1.3 m, Male 252 kg, Female 240 kg, Lifespan 14 years.
Waterbuck, as their name implies, are usually found close to permanent sources of water such as rivers or large dams. They are mainly grazers although they will also feed on leafy bits of vegetation.
These big antelope have shaggy grey coats, but their most distinctive feature is the large white circle which runs around their rump. Males have long rippled horns sweeping gently upwards and forwards in a shallow arc.
They are often seen in herds of up to 20 head consisting of a territorial bull, females and their young or bachelor herds of young male bulls. Breeding occurs throughout the year and a single calf is born after a gestation period of 8-9 months.
Blue Wildebeest. Shoulder Height: 1.4 m, Male 240 kg, Female 185 kg, Lifespan 20 years.
Wildebeest prefer open plains. This habitat makes it easier for them to detect potential predators such as lion, but also enables them to run more effectively.
Wildebeest are sociable, and often form smaller herds of around four to eight animals. They need frequent access to water and will migrate to fresh grazing areas where they feed on the short tufts of grass. Sometimes these migrations can be in larger herds, as seen in the Serengeti.
Both sexes have broad horns which project sideways and then curve upwards, tapering to a sharp point, similar to those of the buffalo. Blue Wildebeest have lean bodies with long thin legs and broad necks. They are uniform grayish-black in colour, patterned with indistinct vertical stripes.
During the breeding season, females form calving herds and give birth to a single calf within few days of each other. The calf is able to stand a few minutes after being born, and within a day, the calf can run fast enough to keep up with the herd.
Burchell’s Zebra. Shoulder Height: 1.35 m, Male 300 kg, Female 300 kg, Lifespan 22 years.
The Burchell's Zebra is found in grassland savanna regions. They are sociable animals generally seen in herds of anything from a few Zebra to a few hundred and they are commonly seen grazing with wildebeest and other sociable species. Large herds of Zebra are made up of smaller family units composed of a stallion, several mares and their youngsters. Good grazing and availability of water are important habitat requirements and a herd will migrate to a better area if this is lacking.
Burchell's Zebras are differentiated from other zebra species by the light brown 'shadow-stripes' found between the black stripes, the black tufted tail and the black patch around its nostril.
Lions are the Zebra's main predator with new born zebra foals being most vulnerable to attack. A single foul is born after a gestation period of 12 months, usually during July to September.